Adoption of Affordability and Sustainability Issues in Slum Rehabilitation through PPP in Dhaka, Bangladesh

  • Fawzia FARZANA Associate Professor, Urban and Rural Planning Discipline, Khulna University, Bangladesh

Abstract

More and more slum dwellers are left homeless as their shacks are being either bulldozed in broad daylight or burnt to ashes by hooligans in the dead of night to clear up the settlements, leaving them in the wobble in and around the capital city, Dhaka. Slum evictions and attempts of rehabilitation are quite old phenomena here that started since the mid-70s. A number of resettlement camps located far to the periphery of the city were selected for the rehabilitation. The squatters, however, re-infiltrated the city soon after as the camps had no job or commuting facilities. The outcome of the most recent rehabilitation project in Bhashantek, Mirpur through Public-Private Partnership (PPP) is not different from the previous ones because it too ignored the need for an environment conducive to work and live in, and fixed the price at a level that will rule out the so called target group. It is essential to include both affordability and sustainability issues in a housing project to make it successful. However, housing affordability is frequently defined and assessed only in terms of economic viability. Other important issues, such as sustainability, housing location and quality are sometimes overlooked which are the reasons behind the failure of slum rehabilitation initiatives by the government in Bangladesh. This paper has explored the affordability and sustainability issues in low income housing with reference to experiences of slum rehabilitations initiated both by the state and NGOs or development partners. Analysing the taken rehabilitation schemes the paper has identified the way forward to provide affordable and sustainable housing for slum dwellers and low income people of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Author Biography

Fawzia FARZANA, Associate Professor, Urban and Rural Planning Discipline, Khulna University, Bangladesh

More and more slum dwellers are left homeless as their shacks are being either bulldozed in broad daylight or burnt to ashes by hooligans in the dead of night to clear up the settlements, leaving them in the wobble in and around the capital city, Dhaka. Slum evictions and attempts of rehabilitation are quite old phenomena here that started since the mid-70s. A number of resettlement camps located far to the periphery of the city were selected for the rehabilitation. The squatters, however, re-infiltrated the city soon after as the camps had no job or commuting facilities. The outcome of the most recent rehabilitation project in Bhashantek, Mirpur through Public-Private Partnership (PPP) is not different from the previous ones because it too ignored the need for an environment conducive to work and live in, and fixed the price at a level that will rule out the so called target group. It is essential to include both affordability and sustainability issues in a housing project to make it successful. However, housing affordability is frequently defined and assessed only in terms of economic viability. Other important issues, such as sustainability, housing location and quality are sometimes overlooked which are the reasons behind the failure of slum rehabilitation initiatives by the government in Bangladesh. This paper has explored the affordability and sustainability issues in low income housing with reference to experiences of slum rehabilitations initiated both by the state and NGOs or development partners. Analysing the taken rehabilitation schemes the paper has identified the way forward to provide affordable and sustainable housing for slum dwellers and low income people of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Published
2019-11-25