Gender Equality in Environmental Issues for Achieving Sustainable Peace and Security in Nigeria
Keywords:gender, equality, inequality, environment, peace and security
This paper examines gender equality in environmental issues for achieving sustainable peace and security in Nigeria. The study adopts an ex-post facto research design. The findings confirm the age-long devastating effects of human exploitation of land and its resources. It discovers that enhanced peace and security (proxied by defense expenditure) leads to the improved environment (reduced Co2 emissions) and that gender equality improves the environment as a result of the reduction in Co2 emissions due to gender mainstreaming on environmental management. Similarly, it also discovers that increase in the quality of governance which is control for corruption [CC]) will decrease Co2 emissions and indicates that good governance leads to reduced Co2 emissions and thus, better environment but on the contrary, age index leads to an increase in Co2 emissions. Since the moderating effects of environmental impact assessment curtails Co2 emissions from high industrialization, environmental impact assessment should be mandatory for every firm that would be established. Also, the government should increase defense budget, design new industrial policies, ensure gender mainstreaming, intensify anti-corruption fight and enact environmental sustainability laws to reduce Co2 emissions, and improve environment with the ultimate target of attaining peace and security in Nigeria.
KEYWORDS: gender, equality, inequality, environment, peace and security
Bennhold-Thomsen, V. 1980. â€œInvestment in the Poor: Analysis of World Bank Policy.â€ Social Scientist 8 (7&8). Biehl, J. 1991. Finding Our Way. Rethinking Ecofeminist Politics. Montreal: Black Rose Books.
Braidotti, R. 1999. â€œTowards Sustainable Subjectivity: A View from Feminist Philosophy.â€ In: Becker, E., Jahn, Th. (eds.). Sustainability and the Social Sciences. A Cross Disciplinary Approach to Integrating Environmental.
Dankelmann, I. and Davidson, J. 1988. â€œWomen and the Environment in the Third World: Alliance for the Futureâ€. London: Earthscan Publications.
GEF. 2018. â€œGender Mainstreamingâ€. Global Environment Facility. Available at https://www.thegef.org/publications.
Global Education. n. d. Available at www.globaleducation.edna.edu.au/globaled/go/ cache/.../517.
Haig, D. 2004. â€œThe Iexorable Rise of Gender and the Decline of Sex: Social Change In Academic Titles, 1945-2001.â€ Archives of Sexual Behavior 33 (2): 87-96. PMID 15146141.
IPPF (International Planned Parenthood Federation). 2018. What is gender equality? Available at
Mellor, M. 2001. Nature, Gender and the Body. In: Nebeling, A., Poferl. A. and Schultz, I. (eds.): GeschlechterverhÃ¤ltnisse, NaturverhÃ¤ltnisse. Opladen, 119-36.
Mies, M. 1982. The Lacemakers of Narsapur: Indian Housewives Produce for the World Market. London:
Pesaran, M. H., Shin, Y., & Smith, R. J. 2001. â€œBounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships.â€ Journal of applied econometrics 16(3): 289-326.
Salleh, A. 1994. â€œNature, Women, Labour, Capital: Living the Deepest Contradiction.â€ In: M. OÂ´Connor (ed.): Is Capitalism.
King, Y. 1989. â€œThe Ecology of Feminism and the Feminism of Ecology.â€ In: J. Plant. Healing the Wounds, Philadelphia: New Society Publishers: 18â€“28.
Shiva, V. 1988. Staying Alive. Women, Ecology and Development. London: Zed Books.
Tiondi, T. 2001. Women, environment and development: Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America (Theses and Dissertations). Paper 1549.
Townsend, J. 1995. WomenÂ´s Voices from the Rainforest. London: Routledge.
von Werlhof, C. 1980. â€œWomenÂ´s Work: The Blind Spot in the Critique of Political Economy.â€ Journades D`Estudi sobre el Patriarcat, Universitat AutÃ³nomia de Barcelona.
Ross Ryan. 2000. Environmental Dimensions of Peace and Conflict Studies. Peace & Conflict Review 5(1): 1659-3995. Retrieved June 20, 2018 from http://www.review.upeace.org/index.cfm?opcion=0 &ejemplar=20&entrada=110.
Schultz, Irmgard et al. 2001. â€œResearch on Gender, the Environment and Sustainable Development.â€ Institut fÃ¼r sozial-Ã¶kologische.
Udry, J. R. 1994. â€œThe Nature of Gender. Demography 31 (4): 561-573. JSTOR 2061790.
UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund). 2018. Gender equality. Available at http://www.unfpa.org/gender/
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: RAIS Journal of Social Sciences is given by the author the right of the first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. Authors retain copyright. If the author cites from his own article published in RAIS Journal of Social Sciences, then he is encouraged to cite the name of the RAIS Journal of Social Sciences, volume, and page. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access). This journal provides immediate open access to its content, in this way, we make research freely available to the public and support a greater global exchange of knowledge.
The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.